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EC number: 231-154-9
CAS number: 7440-45-1
As an element, cerium is neither created nor destroyed within the body.
The particular cerium compound (e.g., cerium chloride, cerium oxide) may
be altered as a result of various chemical reactions within the body,
particularly dissolution, but data have not demonstrated a change in the
oxidation state of the cerium cation. Exposure to cerium has been shown
to change hepatic levels of some cytochrome (CYP) P450 isozymes in a
species- and strain-sensitive manner for mice. Salonpää et al. (1992)
gave i.v. cerous chloride injections of 2 mg/kg to adult DBA/2 and
C57BL/6 mice and observed increases in expression of CYP2A4 and CYP2A5
in the livers (2 and 3 days after dosing) and in the kidneys (6 hours
and 1 day after dosing) of D2 mice but not in B6 mice. Arvela et al.
(1991) gave i.v. cerous chloride injections of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg to
adult male DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice and found a greater sensitivity to
increased CYP450 expression (isoform not reported) in DBA/2 and C57BL/6
mice 24 hours and 3 days after exposure, respectively. Conversely,
Arvela and Karki (1971) observed a 50% reduction, compared to controls,
in CYP450 activity in adult Sprague-Dawley rats 3 days after a single
i.v. injection of 2 mg/kg cerous chloride. The effect of changes in
CYP450 levels on the toxicokinetics or toxicity of cerium, if any, is
not known. In addition, the relatively high intravenous bolus doses used
in the available studies may not be relevant to oral or inhaled exposure
to cerium oxide.
Arvela, P; Karki, NT. (1971) Effect of cerium on drug metabolism
activity in rat liver. Experientia 27(10):1189–1190.
Arvela, P; Kraul, H; Stenback, F; et al. (1991) The cerium-induced liver
injury and oxidative drug metabolism in Dba/2 and C57bl/6 mice
(Finland). Toxicology 69(1):1–9.
Salonpää, P; Iscan, M; Pasanen, M; et al. (1992) Cerium-induced
strain-dependent increase in Cyp2a-4/5 (cytochrome P4502a-4/5)
expression in the liver and kidneys of inbred mice. Biochem Pharmacol
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