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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to fish

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Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

Acute toxicity to fish: LC50 = > 100 mg/L; NOEC = 100 mg/L

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
100 mg/L

Additional information

Juvenile fish, D. rerio, were exposed to a single fumaric acid concentration of 100 mg/L in a semi-static acute toxicity test of 96 hours duration. The acidic nature of the tested substance resulted in a marked pH change (pH 4.3 - 5.0) which had, at the concentration tested, no influence on survival of the fish. The 96 -hour LC50 determined was >100 mg/L. The NOEC (no-observed effect concentration) was 100 mg/L.

Read across from fumaric acid to malic acid is considered valid and malic acid is concluded to have low toxicity to aquatic organisms. The rational for read across is that fumaric acid will metabolise in biological systems to malic acid. Fumaric acid is also slightly more fat soluble and is considered more likely to absorb to membranes and increase exposure to aquatic organisms.