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In the TNO 1992 studies, no toxic effect of TDI was observed on the terrestrial organisms (earthworms, lettuce and oats) tested. However, it must be noted that in the tests performed, TDI was in contact with water (in moist soils) and so it is likely that the concentrations of TDI actually bioavailable were much lower than the nominal concentrations (loadings). As with aquatic systems, any ecotoxicity is probably due to soluble reaction products. As an indication of the potential indirect hazard due to TDA formation, in parallel studies EC50 values for both Avena sativa and Lactuca sativa of between 320 and 1000 mg/kg dry weight soil (highest level tested) were found.