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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
test procedure in accordance with national standard methods with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: "Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians" (U.S. EPA 1975).
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
pre-GLP
Specific details on test material used for the study:
TEST MATERIAL:
- Names( as cited): Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
- Purity: > 80% for all tested chemmicals. The purity of Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether is not specified.
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: Five to 8 nominal concentrations were tested
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Chemical name of vehicle: Unclear is a vehicle was used. In the original publication it is stated that "If insoluble at the desired water stock solution concentrations, a stock solution utilizing a co-solvent (triethylene glycol, ethanol, acetone or dimethylformamide, respectively, in order of preference) was prepared."
- Concentration of vehicle in test medium (stock solution and final test solution(s) or suspension(s) including control(s)):
- Evidence of undissolved material: none reported
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna
- Source: stocks cultured at EG&G, Bionomics
- Age of parental stock: <24 hours old
Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
173 +/- 13 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
22 +/- 1°C
pH:
8.0 +/- 0.2
Dissolved oxygen:
6.5-9.1 mg/L
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: 250-mL beakers
- Fill volume: 150 mL
- Aeration: not specified
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 3
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): 3

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: deionized reconstituted well water
- Alkalinity: 173 +/- 13 mg/L

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: not specified
- Photoperiod: not specified
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
340 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: CI 95%: 290-400 mg/L
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
240 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: CI 95%: 170-330 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 7.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The 48h LC50 of Bis(2-chloro)ethyl ether on Daphnia magna was determined to be 240 mg/L.
Executive summary:

The purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of 80 chemical compounds on Daphnia magna based on the "Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians" (U.S. EPA 1975). Five daphnids were randomly selected from a test population for each test concentrations and exposed over a 48h period. Daphnids mortality was observed and recorded at 24 and 48h. In this test conditions, the LC50 for Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether was determined at 240 mg/L following a 48h exposure period.

The experiments were conducted according to a standard method and the study has been subject to peer-review. Accordingly, the LC50 estimate has been assigned a reliability score of 2.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study without detailed documentation
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. QA statement)
Specific details on test material used for the study:
No details provided
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Frequency of analysis: at the start of exposure, before renewal of test solution
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on test solutions:
No data
Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
No data
Test type:
semi-static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Hardness:
No data
Test temperature:
20 +/- 1 °C
pH:
No data
Dissolved oxygen:
No data
Salinity:
No data
Conductivity:
No data
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 1000, 556, 309, 171, 95.3 mg/L (geometric ratio: 1.8), control
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Fill volume: 200 mL per vessel
- Aeration: no
- Renewal rate of test solution: one renewal after 24h exposure
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS: no data

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16 hours light / 8 hours dark

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED: mobility

RANGE-FINDING STUDY: not specified
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Key result
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
414 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL: 309 - 556 mg/L
Duration:
24 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
453 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 95 % CL: 392 - 522 mg/L
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
556 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
309 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
No further details provided
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Based on mobility, the EC50 was determined to be 414 mg/L (CL 95%: 309 - 556 mg/L). The NOEC was 309 mg/L.
Executive summary:

This study was conducted on behalf of the Japanese Ministry of Environment (MOE). The methodology was based on OECD Technical Guideline N°202 under GLP. 4 replicate vessels containing 5 test animals each were used to evaluate the toxicity of Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether to Daphnia magna. Based on mobility, the EC50 was determined to be 414 mg/L (CL 95%: 309 - 556 mg/L). The NOEC was 309 mg/L. As no detailed information was available, a reliability factor of 2 was assigned to this guideline study.

Description of key information

The published study by Leblanc (Bull. Environm. Contain. Toxicol., 1980, 24:684 -91) reports that the LC50 of Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether on Daphnia magna is 240 mg/L following a 48h exposure period. The data has been generated based on the standard method designed by U.S. EPA (1975). Based on this study, the substance is not classified as toxic towards aquatic invertebrates according to GHS-UN criteria.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
240 mg/L

Additional information

Two studies reports the result of acute toxicity experiments on aquatic invertebrates.

The purpose of the study of Leblanc (1980) was to determine the acute toxicity of 80 chemical compounds on Daphnia magna based on the "Methods for acute toxicity tests with fish, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians" (U.S. EPA 1975). Five daphnids were randomly selected from a test population for each test concentrations and exposed over a 48h period. Daphnids mortality was observed and recorded at 24 and 48h. In this test conditions, the LC50 for Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether was determined at 240 mg/L following a 48h exposure period. The experiments were conducted according to a standard method and the study has been subject to peer-review. Accordingly, the LC50 estimate has been selected as key data with a reliability score of 2.

The other study was conducted on behalf of the Japanese Ministry of Environment (MOE). The methodology was based on OECD Technical Guideline N°202 under GLP. 4 replicate vessels containing 5 test animals each were used to evaluate the toxicity of Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether to Daphnia magna. Based on mobility, the EC50 was determined to be 414 mg/L (CL 95%: 309 - 556 mg/L). The NOEC was 309 mg/L.As no detailed information was available, a reliability factor of 2 was assigned to this guideline study.

Conclusion: Two reliable studies are available in order to assess the acute toxicity of Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether to aquatic invertebrates. Both studies found the EC50 of the substance to be > 100 mg/L. Accordingly, the substance is not classified as toxic towards aquatic invertebrates according to GHS-UN criteria.