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Workers - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.17 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
12.5
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
0.85 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
2.1 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAECcorr = NOAELoral*(1/0.38 m³/kg/d)*(ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human)*(6.7 m³ (8h)/10 m³ (8h))*(7 days exposure rat / 5 days exposure worker) = 0.85 mg/kg/d*(1/0.38 m³/kg/d)*(1/1)*0.67*1.4 = 2.1 mg/m³.

In contrast to the recommendations of the ECHA Guidance, a factor of 1 (equal absorption of 100% assumed for the oral and the inhalative route for animals and humans) was included for the extrapolation from oral to inhalation absorption, as there is no valid data suggesting that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion (recommendation of the VCI Working group "Toxicology", 2008). Molecules with a molecular weight <500 and a log Kow between 0 and 4 can be assumed to be well absorbed equivalently by the oral and inhalation route. Oral absorption may be reduced for acids and bases depending on their pKa value and their electric charge in the GI tract. More lipophilic substances may be better absorbed in the GI tract due to solubilisation with bile acids, and thus oral absorption may be higher than inhalation absorption (VCI Working group "Toxicology", 2008). Unless valid data suggest that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion, equal absorption will be assumed when extrapolating from oral to inhalation route. It is assumed that both oral and inhalation absorption rates are 100%.

ABSoral/rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSinh. /human=inhalation absorption rate in humans

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor stating point is based on a NOAEL
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
1
Justification:
DNEL is based on an oral chronic/carcinogenicity study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
Allometric scaling not used for inhalation route
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default value according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default value for workers according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a high-quallity study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
DNEL related information

Workers - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.047 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
300
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
10 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
14 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
Dermal NOAEL = dermal NOAEL* (7 days exposure rat/5 days exposure worker) = 10 mg/kg bw/day * 1.4 = 14 mg/kg bw/day.
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a dermal 28-day study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
DNEL is based on a study in rat
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default value according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
5
Justification:
Default value for workers according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a high-quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
skin irritation/corrosion

Workers - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - workers

General Population - Hazard via inhalation route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.03 mg/m³
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
25
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
0.85 mg/kg bw/day
Modified dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEC
Value:
0.74 mg/m³
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:

NOAECcorr = NOAELoral*(1/1.15 m³/kg/d)*(ABSoral-rat/ABSinh-human) = 0.85 mg/kg/d*(1/1.15 m³/kg/d)*(1/1) = 0.74 mg/m³.

In contrast to the recommendations of the ECHA Guidance, a factor of 1 (equal absorption of 100% assumed for the oral and the inhalative route for animals and humans) was included for the extrapolation from oral to inhalation absorption, as there is no valid data suggesting that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion (recommendation of the VCI Working group "Toxicology", 2008). Molecules with a molecular weight <500 and a log Kow between 0 and 4 can be assumed to be well absorbed equivalently by the oral and inhalation route. Oral absorption may be reduced for acids and bases depending on their pKa value and their electric charge in the GI tract. More lipophilic substances may be better absorbed in the GI tract due to solubilisation with bile acids, and thus oral absorption may be higher than inhalation absorption (VCI Working group "Toxicology", 2008). Unless valid data suggest that inhalation leads to higher absorption than oral ingestion, equal absorption will be assumed when extrapolating from oral to inhalation route.

It is assumed that both oral and inhalation absorption rates are 100%.

ABSoral/rat=oral absorption rate in rats, ABSinh. /human=inhalation absorption rate in humans

AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
1
Justification:
DNEL is based on an oral chronic/carcinogenicity study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
1
Justification:
AF for allometric scaling already included in ECHA starting point derivation method; no further factor required.
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default value according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default value for general population according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a high-quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
low hazard (no threshold derived)
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
By inhalation
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard via dermal route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.017 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
600
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
10 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
No route-to-route extrapolation needed
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
6
Justification:
DNEL is based on a dermal 28-day study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
DNEL is based on a study in rat
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default value according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default value for general population according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a high-quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Dermal
DNEL related information

Local effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity

General Population - Hazard via oral route

Systemic effects

Long term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
DNEL (Derived No Effect Level)
Value:
0.009 mg/kg bw/day
Most sensitive endpoint:
repeated dose toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information
DNEL derivation method:
ECHA REACH Guidance
Overall assessment factor (AF):
100
Dose descriptor starting point:
NOAEL
Value:
0.85 mg/kg bw/day
Explanation for the modification of the dose descriptor starting point:
No route-to-route extrapolation needed
AF for dose response relationship:
1
Justification:
The dose descriptor starting point is based on a NOAEL.
AF for differences in duration of exposure:
1
Justification:
DNEL is based on an oral chronic/carcinogenicity study
AF for interspecies differences (allometric scaling):
4
Justification:
DNEL is based on a study in rat
AF for other interspecies differences:
2.5
Justification:
Default value according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for intraspecies differences:
10
Justification:
Default value for general population according to ECHA REACH Guidance.
AF for the quality of the whole database:
1
Justification:
The DNEL is based on a high-quality study.
AF for remaining uncertainties:
1
Justification:
No remaining uncertainties.
Acute/short term exposure
Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified
Most sensitive endpoint:
acute toxicity
Route of original study:
Oral
DNEL related information

General Population - Hazard for the eyes

Local effects

Hazard assessment conclusion:
no hazard identified

Additional information - General Population