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Environmental fate & pathways

Adsorption / desorption

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Administrative data

adsorption / desorption
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well-documented study performed according to scientific methods.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study

Data source

Reference Type:
Adsorption of Some Monohydroxybenzene Derivatives by Soils
Artiola-Fortuny, J. and Fuller, W.H.
Bibliographic source:
Soil Science, Vol. 133, No. 1, p 18-26

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Solutions of 2,6-xylenol added to samples of five types of soil and shaken at room temperature for up to five days. Data fitted to Freundlich equation.
GLP compliance:
Type of method:
batch equilibrium method

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Details on test material:
The test material was purchased in stock at a purity of 99% from the Aldrich Chemical Co. to prepare a stock solution of 1000 ppm, weighted amounts of the test material was diluted in doubly deionized water.

Study design

Test temperature:
room temperature 22 deg C

Batch equilibrium or other method

Analytical monitoring:
Details on sampling:

200 ml deionized water, enriched with the test substance, was added to 10.00 g of soil in 250 ml flask and capped by displacing the air with CO2 gas. The pH of the suspension was not altered by the CO2 gas. The water used in the soil suspensions was enriched to provide concentrations of test substance varying from 5 to 200 ppm. The containers were shaken and sampled every 24 h for total test substance in solution via gas-liquid chromatography analysis. The large sample volume of enriched water per 10.00 g of soil was justified to allow hydration of the soil without changing significantly the concentration of the test material in solution. Shaking was done at room temperature 22 deg C.
Details on matrix:
The soils used in this study were obtained from typical sites throughout the United States, and they represent 3 of the 10 soil orders. They are Molokai clay, Davidson clay, Fanno clay, Ava silty clay loam, and Mohave clay loam. These clays were selected for their various chemical and physical characteristics. They were air-dried and passed through a 0.50-mm sieve. Otherwise, the soils were left untouched and untreated, so as to represent their field conditions as closely as possible.

Soil properties:
Davidson: soil order: Ultisol, clay %: 52, Silt %: 23, Organic carbon%: 0.3, Soil paste pH: 6.4, Column bulk density g/cm: 1.40, soil surface area m2/g: 159.3
Molokai: soil order: Oxisol, clay %: 52, Silt %: 25, Organic carbon%: 0.5, Soil paste pH: 6.2, Column bulk density g/cm: 1.44, soil surface area m2/g: 167.3
Fanno: soil order: Alfisol, clay %: 46, Silt %: 19, Organic carbon%: 0.9, Soil paste pH: 7.0, Column bulk density g/cm: 1.48, soil surface area m2/g: 122.1
Mohave (Ca): soil order: Aridisol, clay %: 40, Silt %: 28, Organic carbon%: 0.4, Soil paste pH: 7.8, Column bulk density g/cm: 1.54, soil surface area m2/g: 127.5
Ava: soil order: Alfisol, clay %: 31, Silt %: 60, Organic carbon%: 0.4, Soil paste pH: 4.5, Column bulk density g/cm: 1.45, soil surface area m2/g: 61.5

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Phenol adsorption by soils is very much time-dependent, with up to 5 days for the adsorption reactions to reach equilibrium in water-saturated soils. Freundlich isotherm constants derived.