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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
22 weeks
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Remarks:
Non-GLP published study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 207 (Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Not relevant
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
No details.
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Four fluorides were applied into the soil in sublethal concentrations.
Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Details on test organisms:
No further details on test organism.
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
22 wk
Post exposure observation period:
No post exposure observation period.
Test temperature:
Not stated
pH:
Not stated
Moisture:
Not stated
Details on test conditions:
No further details given.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Sodium fluoride
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
750 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Potassium fluoride
Details on results:
In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced growth of E.fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The maturity was delayed through higher concentrations of NaF and KF in the substrate. Most cocoons were found in the experiment with the sodium salt of fluoro acetic acid. Small concentrations of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride reduced it. Only sodium fluoride reduced the number of hatchlings per cocoon significantly. At the end of the test, all worms from the variants with sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and calcium fluoride had a significant higher fluoride concentration.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not relevant
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No reported statistics and error estimates.

At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E. fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride.

No data is available on the effects of hydrogen fluoride on the growth, maturity and and fertility of the earthworm. However, the submission substance will be unstable in the terrestrial environment and exposure of terrestrial organisms will predominantly be to fluoride ions. Therefore the results above are a good indication of the behaviour of hydrogen fluoride in the terrestrial environment.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E.fetida significantly. Effects on the maturity and fertility of the earthworms was also noted in the presence of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of various fluoride compounds to Eisenia fetida was investigated over a period of 22 weeks. At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potasium fluoride.

No data is available on the effects of hydrogen fluoride on the growth, maturity and and fertility of the earthworm. However, in a terrestial environment the submission substance exists predominantly as fluoride ions. Therefore the results above are a good indication of the behaviour of hydrogen fluoride in the terrestial environment.

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
It is considered appropriate to address the toxicity to soil macroorganisms data requirement for hydrogen fluoride (HF) by read-across to available data on sodium fluoride (NaF) and potassium fluoride (KF).

In water, HF dissociates rapidly to form hydrogen (H+) and fluoride (F−) ions, whereas NaF and KF rapidly dissociate to F- ions and their respective counter ion (i.e. Na+ and K+, respectively). Therefore, HF, NaF and KF (as well as other fluorides) will dissociate rapidly to form F- ions in the environment (including moist soil), with any effects observed being directly attributable to the F- ion. The Na+ and K+ ions are naturally occurring and regulated by organisms (i.e. by homeostatic mechanisms) and consequently is not considered to have an impact on the read-across of ecotoxicological data. On this basis, the profile of HF is comparable to that of NaF and KF with respect to the environment.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Sodium fluoride
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
750 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Potassium fluoride
Details on results:
In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced growth of E.fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The maturity was delayed through higher concentrations of NaF and KF in the substrate. Most cocoons were found in the experiment with the sodium salt of fluoro acetic acid. Small concentrations of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride reduced it. Only sodium fluoride reduced the number of hatchlings per cocoon significantly. At the end of the test, all worms from the variants with sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and calcium fluoride had a significant higher fluoride concentration.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not relevant
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No reported statistics and error estimates.

At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E. fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride.

No data is available on the effects of hydrogen fluoride on the growth, maturity and and fertility of the earthworm. However, the submission substance will be unstable in the terrestrial environment and exposure of terrestrial organisms will predominantly be to fluoride ions. Therefore the results above are a good indication of the behaviour of hydrogen fluoride in the terrestrial environment.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E.fetida significantly. Effects on the maturity and fertility of the earthworms was also noted in the presence of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride.
Executive summary:

It is considered appropriate to address the toxicity to soil macroorganisms data requirement for hydrogen fluoride (HF) by read-across to available data on sodium fluoride (NaF) and potassium fluoride (KF). In water, HF dissociates rapidly to form hydrogen (H+) and fluoride (F−) ions, whereas NaF and KF rapidly dissociate to F- ions and their respective counter ion (i.e. Na+and K+, respectively). Therefore, HF, NaF and KF (as well as other fluorides) will dissociate rapidly to form F- ions in the environment (including moist soil), with any effects observed being directly attributable to the F- ion. The Na+ and K+ ions are naturally occurring and regulated by organisms (i.e. by homeostatic mechanisms) and consequently is not considered to have an impact on the read-across of ecotoxicological data. On this basis, the profile of HF is comparable to that of NaF and KF with respect to the environment.

The toxicity of various fluoride compounds to Eisenia fetida was investigated over a period of 22 weeks. At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potasium fluoride.

No data is available on the effects of hydrogen fluoride on the growth, maturity and and fertility of the earthworm. However, in a terrestial environment the submission substance exists predominantly as fluoride ions. Therefore the results above are a good indication of the behaviour of hydrogen fluoride in the terrestial environment.

Description of key information

One published study of the effects of fluoride on Eisenia fetida is available.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for soil macroorganisms:
1 200 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

The toxicity of various fluoride compounds to Eisenia fetida was investiated over a period of 22 weeks. At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potasium fluoride (Vogel & Ottow, 1992).